Beware of Schism

Given the recent release of a press release from a group of 80 large congregationJWmonogram pastors and theologians, I thought it instructive to look at what John Wesley has to say about schism. In my reading of this group of 80’s statement they are clearly calling for the schism of the church. It seems to me this is an incredibly irresponsible and selfish response to the current state of The United Methodist Church. I say so because they are advocating schism over what Wesley regards as “opinions” and not over matters of substantive doctrine. A more responsible, and Wesleyan, approach is to acknowledge that our disagreements are over opinions and we need to find a way to live and work together on the equipping people to participate in the mission of the Church and in Christ’s mission in the world.

The following is from A Plain Account of Christian Perfection by John Wesley. It is near the end of the book. He is giving his advice to the Methodist people and especially to those who are earnestly striving after perfection in love:

“Beware of schism, of making a rent in the Church of Christ. That inward disunion, the members ceasing to have a reciprocal love ‘one for another,’ (1 Cor. 12:25,) is the very root of all contention, and every outward separation. Beware of everything tending thereto. Beware of a dividing spirit; shun whatever has the least aspect that way. Therefore, say not, ‘I am of Paul or of Apollos;’ the very thing which occasioned the schism at Corinth. Say not, ‘This is my Preacher; the best Preacher in England. Give me him, and take all the rest.’ All this tends to breed or foment division, to disunite those whom God hath joined. Do not despise or run down any Preacher; do not exalt any one above the rest, lest you hurt both him and the cause of God. On the other hand, do not bear hard upon any by reason of some incoherency or inaccuracy of expression; no, nor for some mistakes, were they really such.

“Likewise, if you would avoid schism, observe every rule of the Society, and of the Bands, for conscience’ sake. Never omit meeting your Class or Band; never absent yourself from any public meeting. These are the very sinews of our Society; and whatever weakens, or tends to weaken, our regard for these, or our exactness in attending them, strikes at the very root of our community. As one saith, ‘That part of our economy, the private weekly meetings for prayer, examination, and particular exhortation, has been the greatest means of deepening and confirming every blessing that was received by the word preached, and of diffusing it to others, who could not attend the public ministry; whereas, without this religious connexion and intercourse, the most ardent attempts, by mere preaching, have proved of no lasting use.’

“Suffer not one thought of separating from your brethren, whether their opinions agree with yours or not. Do not dream that any man sins in not believing you, in not taking your word; or that this or that opinion is essential to the work, and both must stand or fall together. Beware of impatience of contradiction. Do not condemn or think hardly of those who cannot see just as you see, or who judge it their duty to contradict you, whether in a great thing or a small. I fear some of us have thought hardly of others, merely because they contradicted what we affirmed. All this tends to division; and, by everything of this kind, we are teaching them an evil lesson against ourselves.

“O beware of touchiness, of testiness, not bearing to be spoken to; starting at the least word; and flying from those who do not implicitly receive mine or another’s sayings!

“Expect contradiction and opposition, together with crosses of various kinds. Consider the words of St. Paul: ‘To you it is given, in the behalf of Christ,’ — for his sake, as a fruit of his death and intercession for you, — ‘not only to believe, but also to suffer for his sake.’ (Phil. 1:29.) It is given! God gives you this opposition or reproach; it is a fresh token of his love. And will you disown the Giver; or spurn his gift, and count it a misfortune? Will you not rather say, ‘Father, the hour is come, that thou shouldest be glorified: Now thou givest thy child to suffer something for thee: Do with me according to thy will?’ Know that these things, far from being hinderances to the work of God, or to your soul, unless by your own fault, are not only unavoidable in the course of Providence, but profitable, yea, necessary, for you. Therefore, receive them from God (not from chance) with willingness, with thankfulness. Receive them from men with humility, meekness, yieldingness, gentleness, sweetness. Why should not even your outward appearance and manner be soft? Remember the character of Lady Cutts: ‘It was said of the Roman Emperor Titus, Never any one came displeased from him. But it might be said of her, Never any one went displeased to her: So secure were all of the kind and favourable reception which they would meet with from her.’

“Beware of tempting others to separate from you. Give no offence which can possibly be avoided; see that your practice be in all things suitable to your profession, adorning the doctrine of God our Saviour. Be particularly careful in speaking of yourself: You may not, indeed, deny the work of God; but speak of it, when you are called thereto, in the most inoffensive manner possible. Avoid all magnificent, pompous words; indeed, you need give it no general name; neither perfection, sanctification, the second blessing, nor the having attained. Rather speak of the particulars which God has wrought for you. You may say, ‘At such a time I felt a change which I am not able to express; and since that time, I have not felt pride, or self-will, or anger, or unbelief; nor anything but a fulness of love to God and to all mankind.’ And answer any other plain question that is asked with modesty and simplicity.

“And if any of you should at any time fall from what you now are, if you should again feel pride or unbelief, or any temper from which you are now delivered; do not deny, do not hide, do not disguise it at all, at the peril of your soul. At all events go to one in whom you can confide, and speak just what you feel. God will enable him to speak a word in season, which shall be health to your soul. And surely He will again lift up your head, and cause the bones that have been broken to rejoice.


Acts of Justice

Justice is a word we hear often. It is used a lot with regard to crime and justice
punishment. Justice, in this context, often means punishment and revenge; punishment for crimes committed; vengeance for the victims who have suffered loss and injury. While this popular understanding of justice has its place, it is not the justice we find in the Bible.

God’s idea of justice is different from our human ideas. God is the ultimate judge of the universe. Nothing escapes God’s judgment. God is not impartial. God is the judge who takes sides. For God, justice is experienced in the relationship of covenant love. God seeks justice for those who live in covenant with him. God comes to us in the man, the Jew from Nazareth, Jesus Christ. In him, God has shown the world what justice looks like. In Let Justice Roll Down Bruce Birch writes, “Justice is the chief attribute of God’s activity in the world.” This is illustrated by the beatitudes found in Luke and in Matthew. In the beatitudes we can see that God’s justice is biased in favor of those who are the poor, the oppressed, the weak, the vulnerable. God’s justice acts in their favor and against institutions and systems responsible for their suffering.

God’s justice is about establishing and maintaining community. God’s greatest concern is for the protection of the community as a whole through insuring the basic rights of the poor, the weak and powerless. This concern for the most vulnerable of the world is the main purpose of the law and of God’s mission for the world in Jesus Christ. In this definition of justice God promises to save the poor and bring down the powerful and wealthy who exploit and oppress them. God takes the side of the poor because no one else will. Therefore, to be in relationship with God, to be on God’s side, is to be on the side of the poor.

John Wesley knew this very well. He understood God’s preference for the poor. His understanding of God’s justice is revealed in his work on behalf of the poor. Wesley spoke out against merchants who charged unfair prices for their goods, distillers whose products destroyed the body, physicians who deliberately prolonged their patient’s illnesses in order to continue collecting fees, and lawyers who abused their profession. Wesley protested the oppression of war and slavery. He understood that the people who fought the wars and suffered in slavery were the poor and vulnerable people of the world.

Wesley worked to provide free health care, education, and job training to the poor. He created a credit union from which poor people could borrow money to gain freedom from debtors prison and helped people find employment. Wesley knew that the gospel of Christ could not be heard over the growl of an empty stomach or the cries of hungry children. His was a witness to Jesus Christ and his justice in and for the world.

John Wesley is a good teacher for us when we ask about acts of justice today. Many of the conditions he faced are in your community today. We can find ways to help the poor lift themselves out of poverty and hopelessness: support a local food bank and literacy and job training programs with your money and your time; supporting the work of community organizations with crime victims, conflict resolution, and domestic violence with your gifts and time; and participating in local, state, and national government by voting, attending public meetings and speaking out or writing about issues of justice.

Another act of justice is to examine your own attitudes toward the poor, the prisoner, the victim. Are they welcomed by you? Is your congregation a place where they could experience God’s love?

Acts of justice are the public extension of the personal acts of compassion. To do justice is to love God. To love God is to love justice. To love justice is to love what God loves. And what God loves is the world and especially those who are poor, hungry, abused and vulnerable. To witness to Jesus Christ in the world through acts of justice is to serve those whom Christ came to serve.

Atonement & the Method of Methodism-Conclusion

A Contemporary model: Covenant Discipleship

Today we have a contemporary model of the class meeting in Covenant Dali CrucifixionDiscipleship groups. A group consists of 5-7 people who are willing to be accountable for their discipleship. They agree to meet weekly for one hour. The group’s life is shaped by the General Rule of Discipleship:

To witness to Jesus Christ in the world, and to follow his teachings through acts of compassion, justice, worship, and devotion under the guidance of the Holy Spirit.

The process of weekly accountability and support for balanced discipleship forms members as leaders in discipleship who, in turn, disciple others. Some group members will be commissioned by the congregation to serve as Class Leaders.

Class Leaders partner with the appointed pastor in the work of making disciples of Jesus Christ for the transformation of the world. Each class leader is assigned up to 20 members of the congregation. Their task is to meet regularly with each member of his or her “class” to help them be more intentional about their discipleship. The General Rule of Discipleship serves as their rule of life.

The importance and power of Covenant Discipleship groups and class leaders is that people are equipped to join Christ in his mission in the world through relationships of mutual accountability and support for the disciplined practice of loving God and those whom God loves, leading to growth in holiness of heart and life and the development of a congregational culture of holiness.

Covenant Discipleship groups, and other small groups that foster mutual accountability and support for growth in holiness of heart and life, help the congregation to keep its baptismal covenant: “to provide a community of love and forgiveness and prayer that members may become faithful disciples of Jesus Christ. … and to do all in your power to increase their faith, confirm their hope, and perfect them in love.”


The Wesleyan way of Christian formation provides a simple and practical way to respond to God’s love revealed in the death of his Son. It provides the means to form relationships of mutual support and accountability people need to deny themselves, take up their cross daily and follow Jesus. The call to discipleship is a call to live with the cross. It is a call to relationship with the Triune God. The Wesleyan way helps us know and love God by joining with others like us. God comes to us and we grow in knowledge and love of God through relationships with others who seek to “deny themselves, take up their cross daily, and follow Jesus” (Luke 9:23). This reality tells me that Christian faith and life is necessarily relational. Christ comes to me through the lives, witness and love of other people.

Jesus shows us that his way is the relational way. He shows us how to love:

“If any want to become my followers, let them deny themselves and take up their cross daily and follow me.”

His way is the way of love that is eternal life; life with God here and now and in God’s coming reign on earth as it is in heaven. When we follow Jesus he gives us the grace we need to love as he loves. As we learn and practice the disciplines of self-denial, bearing our cross in daily obedience to the way of Jesus, and walking with him in the world we will grow in holiness of heart and life and become more and more like him. We will become fully the person God created us to be, in Christ. We will also realize that the most precious things in this life are not what the world tells us are important (power, wealth, things, and fame); the most important thing in life is love and the relationships that are gifts from God.

Let us join (’tis God commands),
Let us join our hearts and hands;
Help to gain our calling’s hope,
Build we each the other up.
God his blessing shall dispense,
God shall crown his ordinance,
Meet in his appointed ways,
Nourish us with social grace.

Let us then as brethren love,
Faithfully his gifts improve,
Carry on the earnest strife,
Walk in holiness of life.
Still forget the things behind,
Follow Christ in heart and mind;
Toward the mark unwearied press,
Seize the crown of righteousness!

Plead we thus for faith alone,
Faith which by our works is shown;
God it is who justifies,
Only faith the grace applies,
Active faith that lives within,
Conquers earth, and hell, and sin,
Sanctifies, and makes us whole,
Forms the Saviour in the soul.

Let us for this faith contend,
Sure salvation is its end;
Heaven already is begun,
Everlasting life is won.
Only let us persevere
Till we see our Lord appear;
Never from the rock remove,
Saved by faith which works by love.

(Charles Wesley, #507 in A Collection of Hymns for the Use of The People Called Methodists, 1780).

Atonement and the Method of Methodism-Part 4: Following Jesus

Following Jesus:
The Wesleyan Way of Discipleship

The Wesleyan tradition provides a powerful compass heading for following Dali CrucifixionJesus (the third ingredient of Jesus’ recipe for discipleship in Luke 9:23). The engine of Methodism was the compulsory small groups known as class meetings. The Wesleyan “Rule of Life”—The General Rules—provided guidance for living the “cross-bearing” life that is the way of Jesus. “A rule of life is a pattern of spiritual disciplines that provides structure and direction for growth in holiness. … It fosters gifts of the Spirit in personal life and human community, helping to form us into the persons God intends us to be” (Marjorie Thompson, Soul Feast: An Invitation to the Christian Spiritual Life, 138). The General Rules functioned as a rule of life for the Methodist societies. It oriented the network of societies toward obedience to Jesus’ teachings and fostered a culture of holiness; inward love of God expressed in outward love of those whom God loves.

The class meeting taught Methodists how to live as Christians in the world by gathering for prayer, Bible reading, exhortation, hymn singing, and accountability for discipleship shaped by the General Rules. These small groups of 12-15 people, men and women together, met weekly for 1-2 hours. They were led by an appointed leader who was a seasoned follower of Jesus. The class leaders where persons who possessed the pastoral gifts needed for the work of disciple-making. All Methodists were required to meet with their class every week. The weekly discipline of the class meeting formed relationships of trust and mutual affection among the Methodists. As the people grew closer and closer to one another their love for God grew and matured.

The discipline of the class meeting served to equip the Methodists to join Christ in his mission among the poor of the world. The dynamic of Methodist discipline led Wesley to state:

Solitary religion is not to be found there. “Holy solitaries” is a phrase no more consistent with the gospel than holy adulterers. The gospel of Christ knows of no religion, but social; no holiness but social holiness. “Faith working by love” is the length and breadth and depth and height of Christian perfection. “This commandment have we from Christ, that he who loves God, love his brother also;” and that we manifest our love “by doing good unto all men; especially to them that are of the household of faith.” And in truth, whosoever loveth his brethren, not in word only, but as Christ loved him, cannot but be “zealous of good works.” He feels in his soul a burning, restless desire of spending and being spent for them. “My Father,” will he say, “worketh hitherto, and I work.” And at all possible opportunities he is, like his Master, “going about doing good” (Preface to Hymns and Sacred Poems -1739).

The class meeting fostered growth in holiness of heart and life by bringing people together weekly under the leadership and care of a mature follower of Jesus. The community of the class meeting, along with the regular Sunday evening society meetings, Love Feasts, and annual Covenant Service encouraged the habitual practice of the means of grace among the people.

While the class meeting was the one compulsory group, other groups contributed to the formation of holiness among the Methodists. Trial bands were for inquiring Methodists. People could “try on” Methodist discipline to see if it was for them. Band meetings were groups of 6-8 people grouped according to gender and marital status. Leadership was shared. The focus of the meetings was confession of sin and prayer. The sharing within the band was on a deeper, more intimate level than the class. The theological focus was on justifying grace. The select society focused on perfection in love. Membership tended to be drawn from the leaders of the society.

Early Methodism was characterized by an integrated network of small groups. They had groups designed to meet people where they were and helped them to grow in holiness of heart and life. As persons matured in love of God and neighbor groups, such as the band and select society, were available to help build upon the growth. The expectation was that all Methodists would come to saving faith in Christ. The goal was to do all in their power to increase faith, confirm hope in Christ and do all in their power to perfect one another in love.

Atonement and the Method of Methodism-Part 3: Cross-Bearing


Jesus tells those who want to be his followers to “take up your cross daily.” Dali CrucifixionChristian life is cross-bearing because it is centered in God’s love revealed in Jesus’ death on the cross. The cross we are to take up is daily obedience to his teachings summarized in Matthew 22:37-40:

“You shall love the Lord your God with all your heart, and with all your soul, and with all your mind.” This is the greatest and first commandment. And a second is like it: “You shall love your neighbor as yourself.” On these two commandments hang all the law and the prophets.

God has given us the grace and means needed to obey Jesus. Love for God and those whom God loves take the form of the cross. Loving God with all the heart, soul, and mind comprises the vertical beam. The means of grace Wesley called “works of piety” are the practices that enable us to participate in the relationship God desires for us. These practices are how we are “at-one” with God.

The works of piety are “ordinances of God.” This means God commands them. They are the basic, expected practices of the members of God’s household. He commands them because they are “ordinary channels whereby he might convey to [people] preventing, justifying, or sanctifying grace” (Wesley, Sermon 16, “The Means of Grace,” § II.1, 1:381). In these practices God calls us to give our time, presence, and attention to him. “The life of prayer begins in a deceptively simple way. It begins with a commitment to make time for the relationship—to show up for our appointment” (Robin Maas, Crucified Love: The Practice of Christian Perfection,  49). God promises to be there when we show up. The challenge is to keep our daily appointments with God.

The essential works of piety are found in the third of the General Rules: The public worship of God; the ministry of the Word, either read or expounded; the Supper of the Lord; family and private prayer; searching the Scriptures; fasting or abstinence. They are practiced in public (worship, the ministry of the Word, and the Lord’s Supper) and in private (prayer, Scripture study, and fasting). Each practice involves the body, mind, and soul. They require us to make time in our day and our week to show up and be present to God and to others in God’s household to offer ourselves to him and open our hearts to his grace.

The horizontal beam of the cross of obedience to Christ’s teachings is our relationship with our neighbor (those whom God loves). Wesley called these practices “works of mercy.” Christ teaches us in his commandments that loving God with all our heart, soul, and mind compels us to love what and whom God loves. Therefore, we love our neighbor as ourselves. Christ teaches that our neighbor is anyone anywhere in the world who is suffering (see Luke 10:25-37). He also said that serving people who are hungry, thirsty, naked, strangers, sick or imprisoned brings us into his presence (see Matthew 25:31-46). Jesus identifies himself with the poor. Therefore, if we want to be in relationship with him we must be with and for the poor. Feeding the hungry, welcoming strangers, caring for the sick, visiting prisoners, witnessing to Christ are the means of grace God gives to love our neighbor as ourselves and, in the process, live out our love for God in the world God loves. Wesley encapsulates these means of grace in Rules 1 and 2 of the General Rules:

“It is therefore expected of all who continue therein that they should continue to evidence their desire for salvation,

First, By doing no harm, by avoiding evil in every kind—especially that which is most generally practiced. …

Secondly, By doing good, by being in every kind merciful after their power, as they have opportunity doing good of every possible sort and as far as possible to all men …

The cross represents God’s love, which is the nature and name of the Triune God. This love, this grace, makes obedience to Jesus teachings possible. This cross-bearing life draws us closer to God and closer to one another.

Christ calls us to journey together – to be his body in and for the world. He calls and equips us, through self-denial and cross bearing, to be his witnesses in the world. We follow together as channels of God’s love and justice for the world in Jesus Christ.

Atonement and The Method of Methodism-Part 2: Self-Denial

John Wesley believed Jesus clearly stated the responsibility that comes with the Dali Crucifixionblessing of his atonement in Luke 9:23

“If any want to become my followers, let them deny themselves and take up their cross daily and follow me.”

This verse describes the “method” of Methodism in a nutshell. Versions of this saying are found in all three synoptic gospels. Wesley was drawn to Luke’s version because it is the only one in which Jesus insists our cross must be taken up every day.

Self-Denial & Love

Jesus gives the church a compass heading for how to respond to the love of God revealed in his death on the cross. Because he defeated the powers of sin and death we are able, by grace, to respond to the invitation to join him in his mission to prepare the world for the coming reign of God. Rather than living in and by the agenda of the world, we can have new life in Christ and become channels of grace for the world.

Jesus tells us what we must do in Luke 9:23. John Wesley took this teaching to heart. He was convinced that one could not truly follow Jesus without participating in his atoning work through practicing self-denial:

It is absolutely necessary, in the very nature of the thing, to our ‘coming after him’ and ‘following him’, insomuch that, as far as we do not practise it, we are not his disciples. If we do not continually deny ourselves, we do not learn of Him, but of other masters. If we do not ‘take up our cross daily’, we do not ‘come after him’, but after the world, or the prince of the world, or our own ‘fleshly mind’ (Col. 2:18). If we are not walking in the way of the cross, we are not following him; we are not treading in his steps, but going back from, or at least wide of, him.

Late in his life, at 86 years old, Wesley completed a tour of Methodist societies in Ireland and England. He found a lack of missional vigor among the Methodist societies. In the sermon Wesley subsequently published in the Arminian Magazine he attributed the current malaise to a lack of Christian discipline, self-denial, and increasing prosperity among the Methodists. Regarding the importance of self-denial Wesley wrote:

Why has Christianity done so little good, even among us? Among the Methodists? Among them that hear and receive the whole Christian doctrine, and that have Christian discipline added thereto, in the most essential parts of it? Plainly because we have forgot, or at least not duly attended to those solemn words of our Lord, ‘If any man will come after me, let him deny himself, and take up his cross daily and follow me.’ It was the remark of a holy man several years ago, ‘Never was there before a people in the Christian church who had so much of the power of God among them, with so little self-denial.’ Indeed the work of God does go on, and in a surprising manner, notwithstanding this capital defect; but it cannot go on in the same degree as it otherwise would: neither can the word of God have its full effect unless the hearers of it ‘deny themselves, and take up their cross daily’.

Wesley defined self-denial to be “the denying or refusing to follow our own will, from a conviction that the will of God is the only rule of action to us. And we see the reason thereof, because we are creatures; because ‘it is he that hath made us and not we ourselves’ (Psalm 100:3).” Wesley believed loving God with all the heart, soul, and mind requires us to set aside our own will in favor of the will of the Triune God revealed in Jesus Christ.

If we truly love God then we set aside our ways in favor of his. Such self-denial is born of faith in God who created and redeemed us. When we practice self-denial we open our hearts to the Holy Spirit who works in us to root out the remnants of inbeing sin and restore the image of Christ so that love can reign in our hearts. Practicing self-denial leads to holiness of heart and life. This is the importance of self-denial for Wesley.

Love necessarily requires self-denial. It is essential for any significant relationship. We must understand that practicing self-denial does not mean that Jesus expects his followers to be “doormats.” It does not mean that Christians must allow others to take advantage of or abuse them. Self-denial simply means that we put the needs and interests of others ahead of our own. Jesus provides an illustration in Luke 10:30-37. In the parable of the Good Samaritan he tells the story of a man from Samaria travelling on the Jericho road. When he encountered a man who had been robbed, beaten and left to die he stopped to help. He cleaned and bound the man’s wounds and took him to a local inn. Before continuing his journey the Samaritan gave the inn keeper money to cover the cost of caring for the man, with the promise of more upon his return.

The Samaritan put the needs of the wounded man ahead of his own. He interrupted his plans and gave assistance to a man who needed his help. Jesus told this story to illustrate the meaning of his command to “love your neighbor as yourself.” Because the Samaritan loved God he was compelled to deny himself and live out that love by caring for a stranger whom he knew God loved.

Self-denial is essential to genuine love – love that is a reflection of God (see 1 Corinthians 13:4-7). After all, God denied himself in the incarnation. Paul describes God’s self-denial as self-emptying love (kenosis) in Philippians 2:5-8

“Let the same mind be in you that was in Christ Jesus,
who, though he was in the form of God, did not regard equality with God as something to be exploited, but emptied himself, taking the form of a slave, being born in human likeness. And being found in human form, he humbled himself and became obedient to the point of death—even death on a cross.”

Paul encourages Christians to be imitators of Christ, just like the good Samaritan. As we submit ourselves to following Jesus through self-denial we become fully the persons God created us to be; the mind of Christ, the way of Jesus, will become our way and we will become the persons God created us to be as we learn to love as God loves.


Atonement and The Method of Methodism (Part 1)

John and Charles Wesley knew the way people came to faith in Christ was Dali Crucifixionthrough relationships with people who love God and are striving to grow in holiness of heart and life. The early Methodist societies were communities centered in the crucified and risen Jesus Christ. Their mission was to introduce people to Jesus, teach them how to follow him, provide the accountability and support needed to receive the gift of faith and then to live their faith by serving with Christ in the world. This work was accomplished in an integrated system of small groups designed to meet people where they were and to help them grow and mature in holiness of heart and life.

The Methodists met weekly in small groups where they formed relationships with others seeking “to flee the wrath to come and to be saved from their sins and.” Wesley understood that people need to see, hear, smell, taste and touch the love of God before they will accept it for themselves.

This is why God became one of us and shared the whole of human life and experience in Jesus of Nazareth. God knows that relationships require bodies. Human beings are embodied creatures. We learn how to live and love through relationships with other people, for good and for ill. God took on flesh and blood in Jesus Christ to relate to us in common words and actions. “The Word became flesh and blood, and moved into the neighborhood. … This one-of-a-kind God Expression, who exists at the very heart of the Father, has made him plain as day” (John 1:14, 18, The Message).

The Eucharistic prayer beautifully describes the way God communicated and connected with us in Jesus

“Holy are you, and blessed is your Son Jesus Christ.
Your Spirit anointed him to preach good news to the poor, to proclaim release to the captives and recovering of sight to the blind, to set at liberty those who are oppressed, and to announce that the time had come when you would save your people.

He healed the sick, fed the hungry, and ate with sinners. …

“On the night in which he gave himself up for us, he took bread, gave thanks to you, broke the bread, gave it to his disciples, and said: “Take, eat; this is my body which is given for you. Do this in remembrance of me.”

“When the supper was over, he took the cup, gave thanks for you, gave it to his disciples, and said: “Drink from this, all of you; this is my blood of the new covenant, poured out for you and for many for the forgiveness of sins. Do this as often as you drink it, in remembrance of me.”

Here we see Jesus’ ministry. He was physically present to people, touching, listening, walking, eating and drinking with them. He commanded his followers to re-member (anamnesis) his life among them in the sharing of a simple meal, the broken bread and shared wine. The simple elements re-present his body broken and his blood shed for the world. We take his love into our bodies so we can give ourselves for others that they may know and experience the love of God in Jesus Christ. This love requires living, breathing, eating and drinking, broken and flawed bodies.

The method of Methodism was to organize people into small groups and teach them practices that re-orient them to Jesus and his way of life. The groups provided the relationships of accountability and mutual support needed to help people develop new habits. The new habits resulted in transformed affections (what we love) and tempers (thinking and attitudes).

The Methodists were required to meet weekly under the care and guidance of a mature, seasoned disciple known as the “class leader.” Part of the weekly meeting was focused on the leader asking each person how he or she practiced the habits described in the Methodist rule of life (the General Rules). The practices of salvation by doing no harm, doing good, and practicing the personal and corporate spiritual disciplines (public worship, the ministry of the Word, the Lord’s Supper, family and private prayer, searching the Scriptures, and fasting or abstinence). These practices involve the whole person. When practiced habitually they lead to people who love what God loves and “have the mind of Christ” (Philippians 2:5).

The goal of the class meetings was to equip Methodists to join Jesus in his atoning work of redeeming planet Earth. His death on the cross set them free from the guilt of sin. His resurrection set them free from the power of death. Wesley believed freedom from the guilt and power of sin and death meant Christians, particularly Methodists, were set free to be co-workers with Christ and his mission to prepare this world for the coming reign of God on earth as it is in heave.